Variety of Gems
Ruby is distinguished for its bright red colour, being the most famed and fabled red gemstone. Beside for its bright colour, it is a most desirable gem due to its hardness, durability, luster, and rarity. Transparent rubies of large sizes are even rarer than Diamonds. Ruby is the most valuable variety of the corundum mineral species, which also includes sapphire. Rubies can command the highest per-carat price of any coloured stone. This makes ruby one of the most important gems in the coloured stone market.
The colour of Ruby ranges from bright red to dark reddish-brown. The most preferred colour is a deep blood red with a slightly bluish hue.
Sapphire is the most precious and valuable blue gemstone. It is a very desirable gemstone due to its excellent colour, hardness, durability, and luster. The most valuable colour of Sapphire is a cornflower blue colour. Sapphire without any colour prefix refers to the blue variety of the mineral Corundum.
The Ceylon Blue Sapphire is known for its beauty and for being one of the few sapphires in the world that can be sold as a completely natural stone without heat treatment. The blues aside, Ceylon sapphires also come in beautiful hues including pink, yellow, orange, green, purple, lavender and of course, the inimitable padparadscha sapphire which was named after the lotus flower. All these highly marketable qualities of Ceylon sapphire has created brand recognition world wide – a brand not created by the producers of the stone, but by the sellers and consumers.Besides for the varieties of Sapphire listed below, Sapphire with colour other than blue are prefixed with their colour names. The main gemstone colours in addition to blue Sapphire include:
Yellow Sapphire (sometimes also called "Golden Sapphire" if intensely coloured)
White Sapphire (describes Sapphire that is colourless)
Padparadscha sapphire is a special variety of gem corundum, featuring an often delicate colour that is a mixture of red and yellow. It can be said a marriage between ruby and yellow sapphire. The question of just what qualifies for the princely kiss of “padparadscha” is a matter of hot debate, even among experts.
The original locality for padparadscha was Sri Lanka (Ceylon) and many purists today believe the term should be restricted only to stones from Ceylon.
For many years now, padparadscha has been narrowly defined by Western gemologists as a Sri Lankan sapphire of delicate pinkish orange colour. The term padparadscha is actually a corruption of the Sanskrit/Singhalese padmaraga (padma = lotus; raga = colour), a colour akin to the lotus flower (Nelumbo Nucifera ‘Speciosa’).
Padparadscha sapphires are considered among the most beautiful and valuable of the corundum gems. Prices for padparadschas vary greatly according to size and quality. Unheated specimens are especially valuable. Padparadscha sapphires have traditionally come from Sri Lanka.
The favorite charm of our time, Alexandrite is the rare, phenomenal, colour-change variety of the chrysoberyl mineral. It is one of the most desired gems. Alexandrite is green or bluish-green in daylight, changing to raspberry red or purplish-red in incandescent light. It’s dramatic colour change is sometimes described as “emerald by day, ruby by night.”
Other gems also change colour in response to a light-source change.Alexandrite can appear in yellowish-, brownish-, or grayish-green shades in daylight, with an orangish- or brownish-red counterpart in incandescent light.
Alexandrite is a very rare and highly valuable gemstone, and until recently was extremely difficult to obtain due to its rarity. Today it is mainly mined in Sri Lanka and we have good colour alexandrite’s.
Most often Alexandrite is faceted into round and cushion cuts that can bring out the best in its colour. In jewelry, Alexandrite is used as rings and pendant centerpieces. It in large sizes is extremely rare and valuable; most Alexandrite available is 2 carats or less.
Go for the Cleopatra’s favorite; enhance love and contentment; wear an Emerald.
Emerald, the green variety of Beryl, is the most famous and valuable green gemstone. Its eye catching green colour combined with durability and rarity, makes it one of the most expensive gemstones. Deep green is the most desired colour in Emeralds. Very pale coloured stones are not called Emeralds but rather "Green Beryl"
The word "emerald" comes from Latin smaragdus, via Greek smaragdos, its original source being a Semitic word izmargad or the Sanskrit word, marakata, meaning "emerald" or "green".
Transparent emeralds are faceted into gem cuts for jewelry, and make one of the most popular jewelry gemstones. Emerald is very sensitive to pressure and banging, and the well-known emerald cut was developed specifically for this gem to reduce the amount of pressure during cutting.
Garnet is not a single mineral, but describes a group of several closely related minerals. Garnets come in a variety of colours and have many different varieties. However, the most widely-known colour of Garnet gemstones is dark red. Garnets come in many colours such as Red, Green, Yellow, Orange, Brown, Pink, Purple, Gray and Black.
Almandine garnet - Purple/red
Pyrope garnet - Blood red
Grossular garnet - Hessonite -orange/brown,green and pink
Massive grossular -jade green
Andradite garnet - Demantoid -green
Topazolite -golden yellow
Spessartite garnet - Orange, yellow, flame red
Uvarovite garnet - Emerald green
Garnet is a frequently found gemstons in sri lanka and it is a very popular gemstone for all types of jewerly, including necklaces, rings, bracelets, and earrings.
Star stones of the corundum family are either star sapphires or rubies. When light falls on these stones, a star effect is visible (known as asterism).Sri Lanka is the best known source for star sapphires and star rubies. Star sapphires has a colour range of grey to bluish-grey and from medium blue to medium dark blue. The very slightly purplish medium dark blue is the best colour grade for star sapphires. Star rubies range from light pink-red to purple-red through deep purple-red. The intense red star rubies are extremely rare. A good quality star stone should have a high degree of transparency and a well defined star with no weak or missing rays. It should be reasonably clean and in the face-up position, no distracting inclusions or cracks should be seen. There should be no excess weight at the bottom of the stone.
Star sapphires and rubies are hard stones (9 on the Moh’s scale), which can take a high degree of polish and retain the shine for a long time.
A cat’s eye like effect, known as ‘chatoyancy’, appears to move on this stone’s surface. Cat’s eye is a gem variety of chrysoberyl. Hardness: 8.5 on the Mohs’ scale.
There are generally two varieties of cat’s eye the alexandrite cat’s-eye and the chrysoberyl cat’s-eye, which is very popular in the Far East, particularly in Japan. The ideal colours of the chrysoberyl cat’s-eye are yellowish-brown, which is called the honey colour, and the yellow-green, which is called the apple green colour. A very good cat’s eye, apart from being of ideal colour, should have a high degree of transparency and a well-defined unbroken ray. It should be free from any distracting inclusions visible to the unaided eye. The chrysoberyl cat’s-eye is one of the most beautiful gemstones because of the chatoyancy or the eye effect.The finest quality has a sharp eye that appears to open and close as the stone is rotated, and exhibits a strong “milk and honey” effect (stone on one side of the eye appears lighter than the other). These colours switch as the stone or [light source is moved. The most highly prized body colours are greenish-yellow and brownish-yellow (honey colour).
Tourmaline which is known as ‘thegemstone of the rainbow’, is the most colourful of all gemstones. The name tourmaline comes from the Singhalese words 'tura mali'. In translation, this means 'stone with mixed colours', referring to the colour spectrum of this gemstone, which outdoes that of all other precious stones. There are tourmalines from red to green and from blue to yellow. Out of all colours of tourmaline pink, red, green, blue, multicoloured and especially watermelon colour are well-known. Tourmalines of all colours are faceted into gems for jewelry.
There are tourmalines which change their colour when the light changes from daylight to artificial light, and some show the light effect of a cat's eye. No two tourmalines are exactly alike. This gemstone has an endless number of faces, and for that reason it suits all moods. No wonder that magical powers have been attributed to it since ancient times. In particular, it is the gemstone of love and of friendship, and is said to render them firm and long-lasting. Tourmaline is found in a variety of colours in Sri Lanka.
Spinel is most famous for its deep red variety that closely resembles Ruby. These two gemstones can be very difficult to distinguish.
Spinel is a gemstone that comes in a variety of colours. Pure Spinel is colourless, but impurities are responsible for the wide range of colours. The deep blood red is the most valuable and desirable of all colours and it is often called as Ruby Spinel. This Ruby Spinel is a very good substitute for Ruby. Fine red Spinel is actually rarer than Ruby of equal colour. Other than red even blue, yellow, orange, pink, and purple colours make fine gemstones. Spinel is also an important pink gemstone.
Almandine Spinel - Violet to violet-blue colour.
Balas Ruby - Pink to pale red colour.
Blue Spinel - Light to dark blue
Flame Spinel - Orange to orange-red
Gahnospinel - Dark green to greenish-black (Zinc-rich form of Spinel)
Picotite - Brown
Pleonast - Opaque, dark blue or green to black
Rubicelle - Yellow to orange
Ruby Spinel - Ruby-red
Drive away the evil spirits and bring prosperity to yourself, wear a zircon.
Zircon is an important gemstone of many colours, and is a historical gemstone used for thousands of years. It is sometimes looked upon as a cheap Diamond simulant, but in actuality it can be a valuable gem. Zircon comes closer to resembling Diamond than any other natural gem. Its strong luster and intense fire gives it a real sparkle that is comparable to Diamond.
Zircons of all colours are used as gems, but blue, golden-brown, and white are the colours most often used. Blue Zircon, the most popular colour, has a lively pastel blue, and occasionally has a very desirable striking bright blue colour. Colourless Zircon is usually cut with a brilliant cut to bring out its fire to its fullest capability.
quartz is one of the most common minerals on earth. It’s very beautiful and cheap relative to other gemstones. Amethyst and Citrine are the most popular and valuable gem varieties of quartz.
Pure Quartz, which is also known as Rock Crystal, is colourless. Various impurities are responsible for the extensive range of colours of quartz. The main crystalline Quartz varieties used as gemstones are described below.
Amethyst - Purple variety of Quartz
Citrine - Citrine is the yellow, orange, or reddish-brown variety of Quartz.
Prasiolite / Green Quartz
Cat's Eye Quartz
“A topaz wearer can be invisible”, it is an ancient greeks’belief. Topaz makes an ideal gem. A good hardness and desirable colours, combined with a relative abundance and availability makes it one the most popular gemstones. The name topaz comes from the Sanskrit and means fire. Topaz occurs in a wide range of colours including red, orange, peach, pink, gold, yellow, brown and clear and is found in Brazil, Sri Lanka, Pakistan and Russia. Naturally pale to medium blue topaz is enhanced by irradiation to produce a more intense blue colour. Though the most famous topaz is actually a colourless topaz, most valuable colours of Topaz are the golden orange-yellow type, called Imperial Topaz, and the dark pinkish-red and orange-red colours. The value of this gem increases with a deepness of colour in orange and reddish hues. The most commonly used colours of Topaz in jewelry are the blue types.
Bring yourself good fortune and enhance passion with a moonstone.Scientifically speaking, moonstone is the adularescent variety of orthoclase feldspar, but that definition falls short in describing this enchanting stone. When looking at a moonstone that glows like a bright full moon, it's easy to understand how the iridescent stones got their name.It's hard to describe the colours of moonstone without using the word "magical." While a moonstone's body colour is basically colourless -white, clear, gray, or sometimes very pale yellow. The iridescent blue and bluish-green shimmer (adularescence) that glides across its surface makes "colourless" seem like a misnomer. Moonstones can also be brownish or green.
There are several types of moonstones such as,
Cat's Eye Moonstone - Moonstone exhibiting chatoyancy.
Rainbow Moonstone (Labradorite) - Moonstone with a blue sheen.
Star Moonstone - Moonstone displaying asterism.
Chrysoberyl is actually the name of a mineral as well as three different gem varieties, two of which are widely accepted as the most rare and valuable of all phenomenal gems. The gem commonly known as simply chrysoberyl is a yellowish-green, brownish-yellow, or colourless transparent to translucent mineral.
The name chrysoberyl comes from the Greek, chrysoberyl meaning golden beryl. It is most often a lightly coloured gemstone, though increased colour saturation will increase its value. Chrysoberyl gemstones are often free of flaws. Stones larger than several carats are uncommon. With a hardness of 8½, Chrysoberyl is also one of the hardest gemstones.
All colours of transparent Chrysoberyl can be faceted into gemstones. Despite its appealing and valuable nature, Chrysoberyl is not extensively used in jewelry.
The most common colours for Chrysoberyl jewelry are yellow, greenish-yellow, and brownish-yellow. Cat's Eye is polished into cabochons, and usually has a yellow-brown, greenish-brown, greenish-gray, or gray colour.